Monday, March 9, 2009

Psychology GRE Study Guide Page 2

My “free” internet signal has left me despondent these past couple of weeks. Yesterday, the signal returned, but only for a few hours. As a result, I was forced to use one of those book-thingy’s on my shelf. I had to reference things in the index and flip the pages (by hand!), but it was still faster, and more enjoyable and relaxing, than retrieving information from the interweb. Wait, unless you are studying for the GRE, in which case it’s easier to come here.

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9. Protection-motivation theory was developed by Rogers. It describes coping strategies for perceived health threats using either a threat or a coping appraisal. The theory proposes that intended self protection depends upon: perceived severity of event, perceived probability or vulnerability, the efficacy of the recommended prevention (response efficacy), and the perceived self-efficacy.

10. An attitude, according to social psychologists, is a positive or negative evaluation or belief of something. It may affect behaviour. Attitudes can be broken down into cognitive, affective, and behavioural components.

11. Elaine Hatfield did some studies about the types of love.
a. Agape love has its roots in Christianity and is a spiritual (not sexual) and selfless love towards all.
b. Companionate love is described more by trust and warmth than intense emotions. Tends to start later in the relationship and be more enduring.
c. Erotic love (eros) is sexual attraction and desire.
d. Passionate love is an intense emotional state in which the individual is influenced by a powerful longing to be with the other person.
e. Friendship love (philia) is an interested, affectionate, strong liking with an emotional connection.

a. Problem-solving heuristics refer to learning by experiment.
b. Linguistics is the study of language.
c. Self-monitoring behaviour is the tendency to change behaviour in accordance with a situation. High self-monitors are more likely than low self-monitors to change their actions and beliefs in order to best suit their needs.
d. Intrinsic motivation refers to situations where there is no internal or external motivation; the behaviour is self-motivated.
e. The fundamental attribution error is the overestimation of internal factor and the underestimation of external forces when interpreting another person’s behaviour.

13. Self-esteem is a person’s own evaluation of their worth. There is only one answer here that is concerned directly with the individual and can not be attributed to other environmental factors.

14. Adrenaline (epinephrine) is involved in autonomic responses to stressors, particularly the fight-or-flight response, increasing heart-rate and available energy for a short period of time. Schachter and Singer found that experience of emotion was determined by expectation and developed the two-factor theory of emotion which includes autonomic arousal as well as individual interpretation of that arousal. Dopamine and serotonin affect sleep, mood, attention, and learning.

15. The correlation between two variables is the slope of the best-fit line.

16. Paul Ekman did an experiment where people were asked to match photographs of provocative facial expressions to a wide number of emotion labels and found agreement on six. (For the record, I don’t buy into this theory; I have more emotions than that in ten minutes).

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