Tuesday, March 17, 2009

Psychology GRE Study Guide, Page 3

Also, feel free to email me with questions.

Page 1 - question #1 updated
Page 2

17.
a. Synchrony means occurring at the same time.
b. Proximodistal development means that physical development occurs from the inside (near) out (distal); spinal cord develops before outside regions of body, arms develop before hands.
c. Reciprocal socialisation is a bidirectional process where by parents and children socialise each other.
d. Symbiosis is two organisms living together with either one or both members benefiting from the attachment (parasites).
e. Insecure attachment can be either avoidant (child is not concerned with coming or going of parent and may avoid contact) or resistant (child is very upset when parent leaves and is not easily comforted upon reunion). Secure attachment is when a child is slightly distressed in the absence of a caregiver and is easily reassured upon reunion.

18. Jean Piaget believed everyone is born with a tendency to organise their environment in a meaningful way. He also believed that children think differently than adults. Especially, that children’s views of the world are inaccurate and that their schemata (models of the world) change with children’s reasoning errors. Piaget suggested that the ability to correct errors in schemata is based on assimilation (fitting new experiences into existing schemata) and accommodation (modification of schemata based on new experiences). Piaget believed there were four stages of childhood development. These were sensorimotor (birth-2yrs, schemata based on sensory and motor information), preoperational (2-7yrs, more abstract and symbolic thought-absent objects), concrete operational (7-11yrs, verbalising, visualising, and mental manipulation), and formal operational (11-adult, mastery of abstract thinking). Piaget allowed for variations in timing in how children progress through these stages, but that the stages occur in sequence.

19. This one relates to #18 where a young child’s view of the world is still developing and they are still in the process of accommodating new experiences. In assimilation, the child will take something new, say a bowl, and fit it into their current view by categorising it as a cup because both are round with an open top.

20. Epstein believed that to get an accurate estimate of a personality trait, you need many observations. The psychometric approach aims to identify stable individual differences by analysing large groups of people with various tests.

21. Heterozygous means carrying to different alleles. In this case, one allele from each parent must be recessive. In order for a recessive trait to be expressed, the person must have two of the recessive alleles (one from each parent). There are four possible combinations of two alleles from each parent. The probability that a specific trait is expressed is (the number of possible combinations of alleles allowing for that expression)/(the total number of possible allele combinations). In the figure below, 'A' is the dominant allele and 'a' is the recessive allele. The probability that the dominant trait is expressed is 3/4.


22. These are pretty straightforward terms. One thing to notice is that A, C, D, and E are all types of learning, which is what is needed for development in any area.

23. Psychosexual stages of psychoanalytic theory are: oral (birth-1yr; pleasure from suckling), anal (1-2yrs; pleasure from defecation), phallic (3-5yrs; attention to genitals), latency (5-puberty; suppressed sexual feelings), genital (puberty; appropriate sexuality).

24. The right hemisphere of the brain is involved in spatial tasks such is assembling a puzzle or orienting an object in an environment and emotional processing. It is more engaged in fantasy and music. The left hemisphere is involved in verbal tasks. It is more engaged in analytic and rational tasks such as math.

25. The reticular formation is situated in the hindbrain. It is linked to life-supports functions such as control of breathing, heart rate, vomiting, sneezing, blood pressure, and coughing.
b. Olfaction and gestation refer to smell and taste, respectively.
e. Homeostasis is the process by which the body maintains a steady state and includes temperature regulation and fluid balances, among other things.

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