Sunday, March 22, 2009

Psychology GRE Study Guide Page 4



I’m too lazy to link all of the previous pages, but you can find them in the archives and under the label “GRE”. Page 1 has a link to the official Practice GRE from which this guide is developed.

26. A sign stimulus is an evolutionary, external, environmental stimulus that elicits a specific patterned behaviour to a specific stimulus, such as behavioural imprinting.

27. Primary prevention is education of how to prevent certain ailments from occurring. Secondary prevention is the early identification of risk factors, screening. Tertiary prevention is the treatment and containment of an illness once it has begun.

28.
a & d. Antidepressants are not a guarantee of long-term recovery; their effects vary with dose, interactions with other drugs (including vitamins), and the individual. Relapse is common in treatment resistant depression. Many people often need to try a few different antidepressants before finding one that is suitable.
c. Personality is a complicated collection of beliefs, experiences, and personal history.
e. Side effects vary between the different medications, but are common.

29. A behavioural approach is designed to change behaviours, as opposed to thoughts, through the application of learning principles (e.g. desensitisation for phobias). Only one of the answers is non-cognitive.

30.
a. The expectancy theory explains the choice making process of an individual which predicts that employees will be more motivated when they believe more effort will result in better performance, better performance will lead to work-related and personally valued awards.
b. The balance theory is proposed to understand a person’s drive towards psychological balance. It involves assigning a negative symbol to disliked objects and a positive symbol to liked objects and then multiplying these signs for inter-related objects.
c. The social comparison theory explains self-evaluation processes of an individual in comparison to a desirable social group.
d. The equity theory concerns an individuals perception of fairness is relationship/social exchanges.
e. A drive is a psychological state arising from a physiological need, such as thirst, in order to restore homeostasis.

31. A preposition is a word that comes before a noun or a pronoun.
a. Descriptive means to describe, outline.
b. Prescriptive is a rule or guideline.
c. Orthographic means concerned with spelling.
d. Pragmatic means concerned with practical considerations or consequences.
e. Semantics is the study of meaning in language.

32.
a. Contextual retrieval cues include visual aids such as graphs and punctuation as well as linguistic and semantic clues.
b. Retroactive interference is when the formation of new memories inhibits the recovery of older memories. Proactive interference is when old memories interfere with the formation of new memories.
c. Decay is the idea that memories are forgotten with the passing of time.
d. Learning is learning, not remembering.
e. Motivated forgetting is synonymous with repression and is a defence mechanism used to push unwanted, traumatic memories out of consciousness.

33.
a. Afferent means leading towards the CNS from an organ or part.
b. Efferent means leading away from the CNS towards an organ or part.
c. Dorsal describes a position towards the back; dorsal fin.
d. Ventral describes a position towards the abdomen.
e. Frontal, anterior, describes a position towards the front; forehead. Posterior is towards the rear; tail.

34. Erikson’s stages of personal identity development are (the backslashes indicate ‘vs.’):
i. Infancy/childhood: trust/mistrust (birth-1yr), autonomy/shame (1-3yrs), initiative/guilt (development and decision making regarding the carrying out of plans, 3-6yrs), industry/inferiority (ability and competency issues, 6-12yrs).
ii. Adolescence: identity/role confusion (adolescence), intimacy/isolation (young adulthood).
iii. Adulthood: generativity/stagnation (concerns over contributions to younger generations), integrity/despair (regarding one’s life, successes and failures).

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