Sunday, March 29, 2009

Psychology GRE Study Guide Page 6

Oh my god, I’m bored. Do you realise the majority of the GRE is based on first year material?

I’m too lazy to link all of the previous pages, but you can find them in the archives and under the label “GRE”. Page 1 has a link to the official Practice GRE from which this guide is developed.

a. Resisting persuasion is to defend oneself against attempts at manipulation.
b. Group polarisation is when a group’s dominant view, usually determined by majority, increases in strength over time. Also related is groupthink, where members of a group so intensely seek consensus that they ignore other views.
c. Fear arousal is frightening people into compliance or into a desired behaviour.
d. Halo effect is when an opinion about one object influences opinions in the same direction on related objects. For example, if a kitten is furry and I like kittens, then if I dress in kitten fur, I will be liked.
e. Two-sided arguments which state two different points of view, pro and con. A one-sided argument presents only the pro side.

44. Binet and Simon were commissioned by the French government way back when to develop a test that would identify children who were more likely to encounter difficulties with the school curriculum. As such, the test was designed to measure memory, reasoning, and verbal comprehension in order to determine the child’s mental age by comparing each individual score with the average of an age group. The Binet and Simon test eventually evolved into the Stanford-Binet IQ test.
a. Crystallised intelligence is knowledge gained through experience. Fluid intelligence is a person’s innate ability to reason and problem solve.

45. The law of effect, developed by Thorndike, is that when an event is followed by a rewarding experience, the event will be carried out more quickly in subsequent sessions (such as a rat receiving food for successfully completing a maze.
a. Skinner was an American psychologist, behaviourist, who focused on operational conditioning which is when a subject (rat) operates on a mechanical device (lever) and an event occurs (pellets come out).
b. Thorndike developed animal intelligence experiments leading to the idea of instrumental conditioning (the animal learns behaviour because of a reward and this behaviour is performed more quickly each time). (In classical conditioning, the animal does not need to perform a behaviour, but is presented with an external stimulus, to receive a reward).
c. Dewey was a founder of pragmatism and functional psychology which regards mental health as an active adaptation to the environment. He also worked with visual perceptions.
d. Wertheimer was one the founders of Gestalt therapy.
e. J.B. Watson was a behaviourist.

46. Lewis Terman’s study of gifted children found that children with a higher IQ were generally taller and in better physical and mental health. He was the inventor of the Stanford-Binet IQ test and believed IQ was inherited.
a. A longitudinal study is a design such that the same people are studied repeatedly.
b. A cross-sectional study is a design in which people of different ages are compared.
c. An experimental study is such that the investigator alters aspects of the test in order to observe the result. The aspect of the environment/test that is altered is the independent variable. The measured behaviour is the dependent variable.
d. A quasi-experimental study is an experimental study that does not include random assignment to groups.
e. A qualitative study is an intellectual inquiry without quantitative, numerical, scientific, evidence.

47. According to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis states that impaired cognitive abilities lead to impairment of second-order cognitive processes (memory, emotion) and may result in schizophrenic traits.

48. Eleanor Gibson’s is known for the visual cliff experiment in which infants demonstrated depth perception by avoiding a virtual cliff (a table with a glass extension) and even when encouraged by their mothers, the infants would not cross onto the glass. She concluded perception to be a learning mechanism. Similar studies were done with kittens!

49. The procedure of determining attachment developed by Ainsworth is called the strange situation test and can be used to classify children (10-24months) into three groups – secure, resistant, and avoidant attachment. The test is conducted in a clinical setting by observing child and parent in a secure environment and then adding stressors and observing how the child responds (when strangers are near, parent leaves).

50. Yay, brain stuff!!!
a. The foramen of monro is a ventricle.
b. The medulla and the pons are located in the hindbrain and serve as pathways for neural impulses from the spinal cord to the brain. Functions include life support such as sneezing, heart rate, vomiting, breathing, and blood pressure.
c. Broca’s area is concerned with language.
d. The hippocampus is associated with emotions and memory.
e. The thalamus relates sensory information to the cerebral cortex, regulates sleep cycles, and regulates arousal.

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