Thursday, April 2, 2009

Psychology GRE Study Guide Page 8

I’m too lazy to link all of the previous pages, but you can find them in the archives and under the label “GRE”. Page 1 has a link to the official Practice GRE from which this guide is developed.

57. According to the DSM-IV:
a. Dissociative amnesia as a symptom occurs in patients diagnosed with dissociative fugue and dissociative identity disorder.
b. Fugue is a dissociative amnesia pertaining to personal details.
c. Depersonalisation disorder is a dissociative disorder in which the patient feels disconnected from their body and reality.
d. Dissociative identity disorder is when a patient assumes more than one distinct personality with associated memory loss.
e. Conversion disorder is a somatoform disorder in which a patient presents with physical symptoms when no physical ailment can be found

58. “…because they are in the prelinguistic stages…children are likely to be mute…deafness…almost never associated with a gross brain lesion...” (Handbook of Neuropsychology, Boller).

59. Traits are the adjectives we would typically use to describe a person – nice, out-going, somber (Five Factor Model). Trait theories are concerned with the differences in traits between individuals. Walter Mischel critiques trait theories by saying that personalities fluctuate too much to be predictive of behaviours. Mischel supported the notion of evidence for cognitive (IQ, delay of gratification), as opposed to personality, traits as predictive of behaviours.

60. Carl Rogers was a founder of the humanistic and phenomenological approach to psychotherapy in which the therapist is concerned with the patient’s subjective experience. He was less concerned with factors such as genetics and psychoanalysis believing that people were most healed by validation of their feelings.

61. During the early stages of embryonic development, males and females are indistinguishable. Hormones aid in the development of sexual structures. When a female is exposed to male hormones, she will possess female sexual organs internally and male sexual organs externally.

62. The standard deviation tells you how much a particular score differs from the mean. It is calculated with the following formula:

The method behind the calculation is to subtract each value from the average and square each result. Then you take the square root of the average of those values. Example: (1, 3, 6, 2). Mean = 3. Then, (1-3)^2=4, (3-3)^2=0, (6-3)^2=9, (2- 3)^2=1. The average of those values is (4+0+9+1)/4=14/4. And the square root of (14/4) gives the standard deviation.

63. In split-half reliability tests, one test is divided into two. Each section is given separately and the results of ‘both’ tests are correlated. Inter-item reliability is when multiple items are used to test the same concept.
a. The Spearman-Brown formula predicts the reliability of a test by replicating the test. More specifically, it is used to test the reliability of a test in which the length has been changed.

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